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Multi-View Consistency in Architectures for Cyber-Physical Systems

Ajinkya Y. Bhave.

PhD thesis, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 2011.

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Today's complex cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are created using models throughout the system development life cycle, a process referred to as model-based design (MBD). The heterogeneity of elements in CPSs requires multiple perspectives and formalisms to explore the complete design space. Ensuring the consistency of these various system models is an important part of the integrated MBD approach.

In this thesis, we propose to unify heterogeneous system models through light-weight representations of their structure and semantics using architectural descriptions. Architectures are annotated structural representations that describe systems at a high level of abstraction, allowing designers to determine appropriate assignment of functionality to elements, and make trade-o s between different quality attributes. There are two fundamental shortcomings of current architecture modeling capabilities that limit their potential to fully address the engineering problems of large-scale, heterogeneous CPSs: (i) limited vocabulary to represent physical elements and their interactions; and (ii) inadequate ways to support consistency relations between heterogeneous architecture views of the same system.

This thesis addresses the first shortcoming through the development of the CPS architectural style that supports a uni ed representation of both physical and cyber elements and their interactions in the same framework. This ability allows the architect to create a common base architecture (BA) for a CPS that provides a uni ed point of reference for multi-domain system models. To address the second shortcoming, the architectural view is used as the mechanism to represent the architectures of system models as abstractions of the underlying shared BA. In this context, well-de ned mappings between a view and the BA are used to identify and manage semantically equivalent elements (and their relations) between each model and the underlying system. Structural consistency de nes when an architectural view conforms to the structural and semantic constraints imposed by components and connectors in the system's BA. Such a notion of consistency ensures that the model elements adhere to the connectivity constraints and physical laws present between elements in the BA. We define view consistency as the existence of an appropriate morphism between the typed graphs of a view and the BA. Depending on the type of morphism present, two notions of consistency are defined: view conformance and view completeness.

Our tool framework is implemented in the AcmeStudio architecture design framework, and consists of a view map language, a graphical view editor, and a set of graph morphism algorithms for consistency checking. We illustrate the application of our architectural approach with two case studies: an autonomous quadrotor with heterogeneous legacy models, and management of model variants in simulation environments for engine control of vehicles.

Keywords: Cyberphysical Systems.  
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